Which Statement Is In Agreement With Darwin`s Steps Of Natural Selection

To answer this question, it must be remembered that evolution by natural selection is a two-step process. The first step is to generate new variations through mutation and recombination, while the second stage determines randomly generated variants in the next generation. Most new mutations are neutral in terms of survival and reproduction and are therefore unrelated to natural selection (but not, it should be stressed, for evolution in the broadest sense). Most mutations that affect reproductive survival and performance will do so negatively and, as such, will be less likely than existing alternatives passed on to future generations. However, a small percentage of new mutations will be beneficial in a given environment and will help increase the rate of reproduction by the organisms they possess. A very small advantage is enough to increase new positive mutations over the entire range of generations. The direction in which adaptive changes take place depends on the environment. A change in the environment can make advantageous properties neutral or harmful, and vice versa. In 1922, Alfred J. Lotka proposed that natural selection could be understood as a physical principle that could be described in terms of energy use by a system[130][131] a concept that was then developed by Howard T. Odum as a principle of maximum performance in thermodynamics, with evolutionary systems having a selective advantage maximizing the rate of useful energy transformation. [132] The other formal model, of particular interest to philosophers, is the price equation.

The price equation represents the extent of a system`s evolution compared to a given property over a single generation with statistical functions: Robbins JR, Roy P. The natural choice: identify and correct unser scientific biases through a critical approach to evolution based on research. Au Biol Teach. 2007;69:460-6. doi:10.1662/0002-7685 (2007)69[460:TNSICN]2.0.CO;2. Important points are that this unequal reproductive success among individuals is a process that occurs in each generation and that its effects are cumulative on the range of many generations. Over time, positive characteristics will become more common in descending populations, as parents with these characteristics always leave more offspring than individuals who do not have these characteristics. If this process takes place in a coherent direction – let`s say that the largest individuals of each generation tend to leave more descendants than small individuals – then there may be a gradual change in the proportion of population characteristics. This variation in the proportion, not the variation of the organisms themselves, results in variations in the average value of a given characteristic in the population. Organisms do not grow; Populations are growing. At least it is quite clear that teaching and learning natural selection must include efforts to identify, confront and dispel misunderstandings. Most of them derive from deep-seated conceptual prejudices, perhaps present since childhood.

Natural selection, like most complex scientific theories, is at odds with current experiences, and therefore, generally without success, it competes with intuitive ideas about heredity, variation, function, intentionality and probability. The tendency to use imprecise language to describe evolutionary phenomena, both outside and within the academic environment, is likely to amplify these problems. Jiménez-Aleixandre MP. Reflect on theories or thought with theories?: a class school with natural selection. Int J Sci Educ. 1992;14:51-61. doi:10.1080/09500699920140140106. Charles Darwin was an English naturalist who, during a five-year world tour in the 19th century, studied variations in plants, animals and fossils.